Selasa, 29 Juni 2010

16 TENSES IN ENGLISH



PREFACE

Thank God I'm turning to the presence of Almighty God, because only for His grace and guidance I can finish writing the paper in the form of a paper entitled tenses.
The source of this paper in the form of grammar books are added to the information obtained from browsing on the Internet reference books and sources, other sources. Among the sources I collated in accordance with this paper, so I think the data in this paper is quite accurate.

In this paper surely there are many obstacles that I meet yet I managed to confront and resolve this paper on time. Finally, if there is something in particular words that are not pleasing to the reader's heart please excuse him. We hope this paper can be useful to readers.








Sibolga, June 28, 2010

Author




Sulis Sri Setia Wati Nduru
NIM. 090802105
Grade: B English Language




TABLE OF CONTEST

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 WHAT IS A tenses?
2.1 We do learn why tenses?
1.3 What the function of tenses?

CHAPTER II PRESENT TENSE
2.1. Definition
2.2 Formulas
2.3. Example

CHAPTER III PRESENT TENSE FUTURE
3.1. Definition
3.2 Formulas
3.3. Example

CHAPTER IV PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
4.1. Definition
4.2 Formulas
4.3. Example

CHAPTER V PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
5.1. Definition
5.2 Formulas
5.3. Example

CHAPTER VI FUTURE PRESENT PERFECY TENSE
6.1. Definition
6.2 Formulas
6.3. Example

CHAPTER VII PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE FUTURE
7.1. Definition
7.2 Formulas
7.3. Example

CHAPTER VIII PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
8.1. Definition
8.2 Formulas
8.3. Example

CHAPTER IX PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE FUTURE PERFECT
9.1. Definition
9.2 Formulas
9.3. Example


CHAPTER X PAST TENSE
10.1. Definition
10.2 Formulas
10.3. Example

CHAPTER XI PAST TENSE FUTURE
11.1. Definition
11.2 Formulas
11.3. Example

CHAPTER XII PAST PERFECT TENSE
12.1. Definition
12.2 Formulas
12.3. Example

CHAPTER XIII PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
13.1. Definition
13.2 Formulas
13.3. Example

CHAPTER XIV PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
14.1. Definition
14.2 Formulas
14.3. Example

CHAPTER XV PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
15.1. Definition
15.2 Formulas
15.3. Example

CHAPTER XVI PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
16.1. Definition
16.2 Formulas
16.3. Example

CHAPTER XVII PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
17.1. Definition
17.2 Formulas
7.3. Example

CHAPTER VXIII CLOSING
18.1. References



CHAPTER I
WHAT IS A TENSES ?

Tense is a method that we use in English to refer to time - past, present and future. Many languages use tenses to talk about time. Other languages have no tenses, but of course they can still talk about time, using different methods.
So, we talk about time in English with tenses. But, and this is a very big but:
• we can also talk about time without using tenses (for example, going to is a special construction to talk about the future, it is not a tense)
• one tense does not always talk about one time
Here are some of the terms used in discussing verbs and tenses.

Tense is a grammatical category, typically marked on the verb, that deictically refers to the time of the event or state denoted by the verb in relation to some other temporal reference point.


Why do we learn tenses?

Our goal is to learn tenses so that we can write, speak and listen well. and we can distinguish when and how something terjadi.dengan we can also learn tenses younger making a paper or thesis with well where in it there is a complete grammar.


What the function of Tenses ?
The simple present is used to describe an action, an event, or condition that is occurring in the present, at the moment of speaking or writing. The simple present is used when the precise beginning or ending of a present action, event, or condition is unknown or is unimportant to the meaning of the sentence.
The present perfect tense is used to describe action that began in the past and continues into the present or has just been completed at the moment of utterance. The present perfect is often used to suggest that a past action still has an effect upon something happening in the present.
Like the present perfect, the present perfect progressive is used to describe an action, event, or condition that has begun in the past and continues into the present. The present perfect progressive, however, is used to stress the on-going nature of that action, condition, or event.
The simple past is used to describe an action, an event, or condition that occurred in the past, sometime before the moment of speaking or writing.
The past progressive tense is used to described actions ongoing in the past. These actions often take place within a specific time frame. While actions referred to in the present progressive have some connection to the present, actions referred in the past progressive have no immediate or obvious connection to the present. The on-going actions took place and were completed at some point well before the time of speaking or writing.
The past perfect tense is used to refer to actions that took place and were completed in the past. The past perfect is often used to emphasise that one action, event or condition ended before another past action, event, or condition began.
The past perfect progressive is used to indicate that a continuing action in the past began before another past action began or interrupted the first action.
The simple future is used to refer to actions that will take place after the act of speaking or writing.
The future progressive tense is used to describe actions ongoing in the future. The future progressive is used to refer to continuing action that will occur in the future.
The future perfect is used to refer to an action that will be completed sometime in the future before another action takes place.
The future perfect progressive tense is used to indicate a continuing action that will be completed at some specified time in the future. This tense is rarely used.











CHAPTER II
PRESENT TENSE

Present Tense is used to talk about something in general. And it is also used to talk about something which is happened repeatedly or habituallly activities.
e.x. + The earth goes round the sun
- The earth doesn’t go round the sun
? Does the earth go round the sun ?

+ I get up at 8 o’clock every morning
- I don’t get up at 8 o’clock every morning
? Do you get up at 8 o’clock very morning?
The pattern :
S + Verb 1 (s/es)…………………………………… Everyday/today

S + don’t/doesn’t + Verb 1…………………… ……Everyday/today

Do/Does + S + Verb 1………………………………Everyday/today?

QW + Do/does + S + Verb 1…………………….…Everyday/today?

We use the present simple when we say how often we do things:
e.x. How often do you go to the dentist ?
• Mary doesn’t often drink tea.
• You Study English
• She writers letter
• We got to school


CHAPTER III
PRESENT FUTURE TENSE

We often use will in this situation:
Offering to do something:
e.x.
• That bag looks heavy. I’ll help with it.
• It will swam
• She will write letter
• You are studying English
• He is going to school


Agreeing and refusing to do something:
e.x.
• I’ve asked john to help me but he won’t
• He’ve ask me Lisa doesn’t go to Medan

Promising to do something.
e.g. I will come to your house tonight. I promise.

Asking someone to do something.
Will you close the window,please!

The pattern :
S + will/shall + Verb 1…………………………………… Tomorrow

S + won’t/shan’t + Verb 1…………………… ………… Tomorrow

Will/Shall + S + Verb 1………………………………….. Tomorrow?

QW + will/shall + S + Verb 1…………………….………Tomorrow?


We often use will to be going to when we say what we have already decided to do, what we intend to do in the future.
e.x. A:There’s a film on television tonight. Are you going to watch it?
B: No, I am too tired. I am going to have an early night.


The pattern :

S + am/is/are + going to + Verb 1……………………………………

S +am/is/are + not + going to + Verb 1…………………… …………

Am/is/are + S + going to + Verb 1………………………………….. .?

QW + am/is/are + S + going to + verb 1…………………………… ..?






























CHAPTER IV
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

We often use the present perfect Tense to give new information or to announce recent happening:
e.x.
• Do you know about Mary ? She’s gone to Jakarta.
• Amir has worked at the Office today.

We can use the Present Perfect Tense with already to say that something has happened sooner than expected :
e.x. Don’t forget to post this letter, will you? I’ve already posted it.

We can use the Present Perfect Tense with just (= a short time ago)
e.x. Would you like something to eat? ‘No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch’.

We talk about a period of time that continuous up to the present, we use the present perfect.
e.x. Dave: Have you travelled a lot, Nora?
Nora: Yes, I have been to 47 different countries.

We often use ever and never with the present perfect:
e.x. have you ever eaten caviar?
We have never had a car.

We have to use present perfect Tense with This is the first time…, It the first time…
e.x. This is the first time he has driven a car. (not drives)

We often use the present perfect with yet. Yet shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences: e.g. Has it stopped raining yet ? (not ‘did it stop’).

The pattern:

S + have/has + verb 3……………………….etc

S + haven’t/hasn’t + Verb 3…………….….etc

Have/has + S + verb 3………………….. ….etc?

QW + have/has + S + verb 3………………..etc?


CHAPTER V
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

1.1 THE USE OF PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE

We use The Present Continuous Tense when we talk about something which is happening at the time of speaking.
Example :
 Please don’t make so much noise. I’m studying.
 Susi is crying
 Are you writing a letter right.
 Listen, some body is knocking the door.
 Rini is working at the Bank.

We also use The Present Continuous Tense when we talk about something which is happening around the time of speaking, but not necessarily exactly at the time of speaking.
Example : Silvia is learning English at the moment.
We often use the Present Continuous when we talk about a period around the present.
Example :You’re working hard today. Yes, I have a lot of to do
We use the present continuous when we talk about the changing situation.
Example : The population without jobs is increasing very fast.
1.2. THE ADVERBS OF TIME USED
The adverbs of time used in Present Continous tense are “NOW, RIGHT NOW, TOMORROW,ETC
1.3. THE PATTERN OF PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE
The patterns of Present continous tense consist of :

1.3.A. Positive Pattern

S + am/is/are + Verb 4…………………………………………….Now


Examples :
1. I am studying English now.
2. We are going to Jakarta tomorrow (akan)
3. You are singing now.
4. He is making a cake now.
5. she is sewing a shirt now.
6. They are playing football in the field now.
7. Tom and Ani are doing their homework tomorrow.
8. The students are doing sport now.




1.3.b The Negative Pattern

S + am/is/are + Not + Verb 4…………………………………… Now

Example :
1. I am not studying now
2. He is not sleeping now
3. My father is not watching television now.
4. we aren’t going to Jakarta Tomorrow.

1.3.c. The Interrogative Pattern

Am/Is/Are + S + Verb 4…………………………………………..Now?

Examples :
1. Are you studying English now ? Yes, I am/ No, I am not
2. Is he eating fried rice now? Yes, he is/ No, he isn’t
3. Is your father working in the office now? Yes, He is/No, He isn’t

1.3.d. Qusetion-word Pattern

QW + Am/Is/Are + S + Verb 4…………………………………...Now?

Examples :
1. what are you doing now ? studying
2. Where is he studying English now ? at school





CHAPTER VI
PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

Sentence that shows the events that would have been done in the future.

S + will have + verb 3 + ……….by the end……

S + won’t have + Verb 3 + ………..by the end….

Will + S + have + Verb 3 + ………by the end…. ?

QW + will + S + have +Verb 3 +…………by the end… ?

Example :

 Kita sudah akan tiba di Jakarta besok sore.

+ We will have arrived in Jakarta tomorrow afternoon
 We won’t have arrived in Jakarta tomorrow afternoon
? Will we have arrived in Jakarta tomorrow afternoon ?


















CHAPTER VII
PRESENT FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

Is a sentence that shows the events that will be done and is still ongoing at the time will come.

S + will be + Verb 4 + O + at…………..o’clock

S + won’t be + Verb 4 + O + at………..o’clock

Will + S + be + Verb 4 + O + at……….o’clock ?

QW + will + S + be +Verb 4…………o’clock ?

Example :

 Kamu sedang akan pergi ke sekolah pukul 7 besok pagi

+ You will be going to school at seven o’clock tomorrow morning
- You won’t be going to school at seven o’clock tomorrow morning
? Will you be going to school at seven o’clock tomorrow morning ?




















CHAPTER VIII
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Is a sentence that shows the events that have been done and is still in progress at the current time.

S + have/has + been + verb 4…………etc

S + haven’t/hasn’t + been + verb 4……etc

Have/has + S + been + verb 4……….etc ?

QW + have/has + S + been + verb 4…etc ?

Example :

 Pelajar pelajar tengah menyanyi sejak pagi ini

+ The students have been singing since this morning
 The students haven’t been singing since this morning
? Have the students been singing since this morning ?












CHAPTER IX
PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Is a sentence that shows the events that will already be done and still berlangsiung at a time will come.

S + will have been + verb 4………since……….

S + won’t have been + verb 4…….since……….

Will + S + have been + verb 4……since……….?

QW + will + S + have been + verb 4….since…..?

Example :

 Mereka tengah akan belajar sejak pagi besok

+ They will have been studying since this morning
- They won’t have been studying since this morning
? Will they have been studying since this morning ?



















CHAPTER X
PAST TENSE

2.1. The Use of Simple Past Tense
We use the past simple to talk about actions or situations in the past.

2.2. The Adverbs of time used

The adverbs of time used in this tense are Yesterday, last….., a week ago, this morning , last night, yesterday morning, yesterweek, yestermonth, yesteryear, etc.

2.3. The Patterns of Simple Past Tense

2.3.1. The Positive Pattern

S + Verb 2…………………………………………………… Yesterday
S + 2…………………………………………………..
Examples :
1. John saw a crocodile in the river yesterday.
2. We studied English here last week.
3. They played football in the field yesteryear

2.3.2. The Negative Pattern

S + didn’t + Verb 1…………………………………… ……..Yesterday
S + tidak + 1…………………………………kemarin
Examples :
1. John didn’t see a crocodile in the river yesterday.
2. We didn’t study here last week.
3. They didn’t play football in the field yesteryear.

2.3.3. The Interrogative Pattern

Did + S + Verb 1……………………………………………..Yesterday?
Apakah + S + 1…………………………………………kemarin?
Examples:
1. Did John see a crocodile in the river yesterday ? Yes, he did/No, he didn’t
2. Did you study here last week ? Yes, we did/ No, we didn’t
3. Did they play football in the field yesteryear? Yes, they did/No, they didn’t

2.3.4. The Question-word Pattern

QW + did + S + Verb 1……………………………….………Yesterday?
Qw + yang + S + 1…………………………………….?
Examples:
1. What did John see in the river yesterday ? a crocodile
2. When did John see a crocodile in the river? yesterday

QW + Verb 2……………………………….………Yesterday? S + did
QW + 2……………………………..?
Examples :
1. Who saw a crocodile in the river yesterday ? John did
2. What grew in the rice-field last year? A coconut tree did

Example
1. We sell our car yesterday
2. Would you go outside during the night?
3. He did not come to the party last week
4. Did you sleep well last night?
5. We sold our house in Jakarta last year.
6. The marketing manager is doing research last week.
7. Does your company sell last year's chair?
8. When you run your business in Jakarta?
9. Who made the cake yesterday?
10. What falls in the street yesterday?









CHAPTER XI
PAST FUTURE TENSE

Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.

S + would + V1…IF + S + verb 2………….etc

S + wouldn’t + verb 1….+ object…………..etc

Would + S + verb 1 ….+ object ……….…..etc ?

Example :

1. Saya akan datang ANDAIKATA kamu mengundang saya
I would come if you invited me
2. Tom akan melakukan perjalanan JIKAdia punya uang
Tom would travel if he had more money
Example
1. If I were you, I would not buy a house
2. I'll get out if it does not rain
3. If I were rich, I will buy a villa
4. If I can speak English, I will go abroad
5. I would not mind staying in the U.S. if the weather is good








CHAPTER XII
PAST PERFECT TENSE

We use the Past perfect to say that something had already happened before this time :

Example :

 When I arrived at the party, Tom had already gone home
 When I got home, I found that someone had broken into my flat and had stolen my fur coat.
 George didn’t want to come to the cinema with us because he had already seen the film twice.
 It was my first time in an aeroplane. I was very nervous because I hadn’t flown before.


The pattern:

S + had + verb 3…………when/before S + V2

S + hadn’t + Verb 3……… when/before S + V2

Had + S + verb 3………… when/before S + V2 ?

QW + had + S + verb 3……… when/before S + V2 ?


1. The house was very quiet when I arrived. Everyone has gone to bed.
2. I feel very tired when I get home, so I went straight to bed
3. I'm not hungry, I just ate lunch.
4. To not bearada at home when I arrived. He had just come out.




CHAPTER XIII
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

We use past continuous Tense to say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time but hadn’t finished:
This time last year I was living in Brazil
We often use the past continuous Tense and the past simple together to say that something happened in the middle of something else:
When I was working in the garden, I hurt my back.
The pattern :
S + was/were + verb 4………………….When + s + Verb 2…….……

S + was/were + not + Verb 4…………….When + s + Verb 2…………

Was/were + S + verb 4…………………. When + s + Verb 2 ……. ….?

QW + was/were + S + verb 4……………When + s + Verb 2 …………?


e.g. + She was cooking rice when Tom came yesterday
- She wasn’t cooking rice when Tom came yesterday
? Was she cooking rice when Tom came yesterday ?






CHAPTER XIV
PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

We use the future perfect tense when we want to emphasize the 'no-later-than' time of the completion of a future action

S + would have + verb 3…..IF + S + had + verb 3…….

S + wouldn’t have + verb 3 ……object………..etc

Would + S + have + verb 3 …….object………..etc ?

Example :

 Ia sudah akan menjadi presiden ANDAIKATA partainya menang dalam pemilihan umum.
 He would have become a presiden if his party had won in general election


Example

1. If I had known that you were sick, I'll meet you
2. Tom will not follow the exam if he knows that because would be so difficult.
3. If I met you, I would say hello
4. Synthesize If I had money, I'll marry you
5. I will send this letter if you have finished making




CHAPTER XV
PAST FUTURE CINTINUOUS TENSE

Use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.

S + would be + Verb 4……when S + verb 2……….etc

S + wouldn’t + be + verb 4….when S + verb 2………etc

Would + S + be + verb 4 ….. when S + verb 2……etc ?

Example :

 Sedianya mereka sedang akan pulang KETIKA kami datang

+ They would be going home when we came
 They wouldn’t be going home when we came
? Would they be going home when we came ?

Example
1. I will be doing his exams the next day at that time
2. We're building will house at that time
3. They're going to play the second round at the soccer match that time.







CHAPTER XVI
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until now, it stops before something else in the past.

S + had been + verb 4…………when S + V2

S + hadn’t been + Verb 4……… when S + V2

Had + S + been + verb 4………… when S + V2 ?

QW + had + S + been + verb 4……… when S + V2 ?


Example :
 Mereka tengah mengerjakan PR ketika saya datang kemarin

+ They had been doing the homework when I came yesterday
 They hadn’t been doing the homework when I came yesterday
? Had they been doing the homework when I came yesterday ?


Example
1. They've been playing soccer for an hour when there is a frightening thunder
2. Ken has been smoking for 30 years when he finally stops
3. Orchestras had already played for ten minutes when a boy shouting
4. I've typed for thirty minutes when the electricity went out
5. They had been asleep for six hours when the fire occurred


CHAPTER XVII
PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: "will have been doing " and "be going to have been doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.

S + would have + been + verb 4…..IF + S + had + verb 3…….

S + wouldn’t have been + verb 4…….object…………etc

Would + S + have been + verb 4.. …….object………..etc ?

Example :

 Sedianya rapat tengah akan dimulai sejak pagi ANDAIKATA walikota sudah datang tepat pada waktunya
 The meeting would have been starting since this morning if Mayor had come on time.

Example

1. That concert was due to begin the middle of the artist artists if it came in time.
2. I was due the middle of going to sleep if they have not come
3. If my father had finished shopping, my mother would cook the food











CHAPTER XVIII
CLOSING

REFERENCES



18.1. Book references Drs. Thuzan
18.2. Website (http//www. 16tensesinenglish.com)
18.3. Andreas Halim

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